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There is, however, one point on which he appears to have misjudged me ; he evidently missed the note on page 23 (p. — Consonant- Voueis 69 (39) § 1.— Nasals 69 (41) § 2. — Explosive xts axd their Substitutes 82 (47) Section I. 21 of this translation), and was therefore led to suppose that I had stated as a fact that an r-vowel actually existed in English. — Liquids 72 (43) Section III.— ludo-Enrojtcan Voicel-G 'radalion (Aj/ophony) .
And I am still inclined to believe this course the best for my purpose, especially when we take into consideration the fact, of which there is hardly any doubt, that .6 recently as two centuries ago the r was no less trilled in mother than it is at the present day in raven. A few words are necessary in regard to the terminology - adopted in this work. — Primitive Vowels and Diphthongs and their Evolution 51 (26) § 1.— Short and long e 52 (27) § 2. 54 (28) § 3.— Short and long u 55 (29) § 4 — Diphthongs of short e 57 (3°) § 5.— Short a and o, and their Diphthongs ... — Long a and o 62 (34) Section ILL— Vowels in Final Syllables 63 § 1.— Final Vowels 64 § 2. Since the words " phonemes " for vi " sounds " and " apophonie " for " vowel -gradation " were not 3 v b ■3 VI PREFACE. adopted by the skilful translator of my Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin — of which the present book is a symmetrical counterpart — I did not think it right to introduce them here : convenient as they are, I have tried to do without them. "Umlaut" has no exact equivalent in scientific language, I have ventured to introduce it to the notice of English scholars and teachers in the belief that, when once naturalised, they will find it a serviceable and almost indispensable acquisition. " Pregermanic," though a somewhat loose translation of G. " Urgermanisch," is at any rate brief and unmistakable, considering that the notion equiva- lent to " Vorgermanisch," — which in the present state of our knowledge is scarcely distinguishable from "Indo-European" — never occurs in my work, and, when occurring elsewhere, may easily be expressed by some such unobjectionable term as " Ante-Germanic." Lastly, I have retained the term " deflected grade," which Mr. — Shortening and Lengthening 89 (a 1) § 8.— Old English Vowel-Breaking 42 (22) § 4.
Elliott adopted in his translation, for the o-shade of an Indo-Eui*opean syllable containing an e, seeing that the only reason which can be urged against it is that it means nothing.
And this indeed is precisely the reason why I adopted it many years ago and still adhere to it, since, as it means nothing, it suffices to represent the fact we desire to express, without introducing any misleading connotation. The present work, as my friendly critic points bnt in the review already referred to, is intended to introduce the com- parative method to students who have already some knowledge of both the English and German languages.
■THE ACADEMY," IN REVIEWING THE FRENCH EDITION (6th January, 1894), write* :— " The object of this very able and interesting book is to enable students who know something of modern German and modern English, to understand the relation in phonology and grammar between those languages, and their common relation to Greek and Latin. The index of English words illustrated contains about nine hundred entries, and the index of German words nearly as many." — The Academy. Library Bindery produced this replacement volume on paper that meets the ANSI Standard Z39.48-1984 to replace the irreparably deteriorated original. The French edition of this work, published in November, 1893 (Paris, Hachette), was reviewed shortly afterwards in the Academy (no.
% A SHORT COMPABATIVE GBAMMAR OF ENGLISH AND GERMAN. The book, in fact, forms an excellent introduction to the comparative philology of the Indo-European languages, its peculiar value being due to the fact that the principles of the science are throughout presented in their application to the explanation of phenomena with which the learner is already familiar.
A SHORT COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH AND GERMAN AS TRACED BACK TO THEIR COMMON ORIGIN AND CONTRASTED WITH THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGES BY VICTOR HENRY Deputy-Professor of Comparative Philology in the University of Paris, Doctor of Letter: and Doctor of Laws AUTHOR OF "A COMPAEATIVE GRAMMAR OF GREEK AND LATIN " TRANSLATED BY THE AUTHOR Itonbon SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO NEW YORK: MACMILLAN & CO 1894 S Y or the r \ f university; syyrs' BOTLKB & Ta NNEB, Thk Sklwood Pbikting "Works, Fbohs, and London. 1131), in so friendly and sympathetic a spirit that 1 feel bound to express my gratitude to the anonymous critic, both for the valuable suggestions he made, and for the praise he gave to my book.
Of the former I have, as he will perceive, availed myself as far as possible, and have deferred to his opinion in almost every case. — Semi-vowels 66 (36) § 1- — Semi-vowel y 6G (37) § 2- — Semi-vowel to 6S (38) Section II. — Germanic Vowel -Gradation 77 (46) Cn Ai-r Kit IV. ~ Dentals 8S (50) § 3.— Gutturals 91 (51) Section II.